Clinic for Reproduction and Large Animals

Cesta v Mestni log 47, Ljubljana

tel.:+386 1 4779 268

fax.: +386 1 4779 340

  • Employees

    assoc. prof. dr.  Janko Mrkun, Head tel.: +386 1 4779 264, 268, 273, gsm: +386 41 360 286
    prof. dr. Marjan Kosec tel.: +386 1 4779 262, 268
    dr. Vesna Kadunc Kos tel.: + 386 1 4779 324, 329, 327, gsm: +386 41 680 700
    assist prof. dr. Primož Klinc tel.: +386 1 4779 266, 268
    assist. prof. dr. Peter Kruljc tel.: +386 1 4779 325, 329, 327, gsm: +386 40 614 028
    assist. prof. dr. Modest Vengušt tel.: +386 1 4779 328, 327, 329, gsm: +386 51 374 969
    assist. dr. Nataša Šterbenc tel.: +386 1 4779 391, 268
    assist. dr. Maja Zakošek Pipan tel.: +386 1 4779 396, 268
    asist. dr. Petra Kramarič tel.: +386 1 4779 326, 329, 327
    Mateja Bogataj tel.: +386 1 4779 268
    Fahrudin Botonjić fahrudin.botonjic@vf.uni-lj.sitel.: +386 1 4779 329, 327
    Matjaž Petrovič tel.: +386 1 4779 273, 268
    Matej Lončar tel.: +386 1 4779 329, 327

  • The telephone number – readily available (from October to May) for urgent cases is 051 613 350

    Admission of Horses

    Horses are admitted to the clinic upon prior arrangement with veterinarians.



    assist. prof. dr. Modest Vengušt, tel.: 01 4779 328
    dr. Petra Kramarič , tel.:01 4779 326
    dr. Vesna Kadunc Kos, tel.: 01 4779 324, 041 680 700
    assist. prof.dr. Peter Kruljc tel.: 01 4779 325

  • Education

    Reproduction of Domestic Animals with Obstetrics

    Subject Head: Prof. Dr. Marjan Kosec

    115 lecture hours, 90 hours of exercises, 2 field exercises, 14 ECTS

    The subject acquaints students with the physiology and pathology of reproduction of domestic animals. In this course, students learn about:

    • sexual differentiation, the role of the sexual organs in all species of domestic animals,
    • the physiological events during maturation of sex cells, in impregnation, the development of embryos, the gestation process, preparation for birth, the birth process and postpartum period for individual species of domestic animals and events related to newborns,
    • sexual cycles and their hormonal balancing, with the possibility of regulating the sexual cycle in domestic animals,
    • possible forms of reproduction, frequency of use of each form of reproduction in individual species of domestic animals and the methods of leadership of reproduction

    The course acquaints students with pathological occurrences, disturbances occurring in male and female animals, pathological occurrences during pregnancy, the pathology of birth and the postpartum period, and informs them about methods of diagnostics and therapies for disorders in reproduction.


    Diseases and the Health Care of Equines

    Subject Head: assist. prof. dr. Peter Kruljc

    70 lecture hours, 60 hours of exercises, 2 field exercises, 10 ECTS

    The course enables the identification, diagnosis, therapy and prevention of primary and specific equine diseases, diagnostic procedures, and care and treatment of sick horses.


    Practicum in the Reproduction of Domestic Animals

    Subject Head: assoc. prof. dr. Janko Mrkun

    45 hours of exercises, 3 ECTS

    Practical training and familiarising students with fertility problems, solutions to these and active management of animal reproduction. In the context of the practicum, students are acquainted with the basics of reproductive surgery and with the latest assisted reproductive techniques.


  • Research

    P4-0053: Endocrine, immune and enzyme responses in healthy and sick animals

    Oxidative and nitro-oxidative stress occur as a result of disturbed balance between the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen types and the neutralising ability of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms. Non-enzymatic antioxidants protect the body from the increased formation of these reactive types, while antioxidant enzymes are involved in their degradation and removal. Oxidative stress leads to a variety of physiological and metabolic changes and can lead to the emergence of various diseases.


    The effect of oxidative and metabolic stress on the reproduction characteristics of cattle

    The ratio between proteins and fat in the milk of dairy cows, which is associated with metabolic stress, has proved to be a good indicator of a prolonged postpartum period. The clinic will continue with research between the parameters of oxidative stress and metabolic parameters in order to predict the incidence of various diseases, especially in the pre- and post-natal period..


    Diagnostic and prognostic markers of seminal plasma to determine the fertilising ability of semen


    Effect of centrifugation and dialysis on freezing of goat semen

    Oxidative stress causes changes in the structure of the sperm membrane due to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids and, at the same time, a relatively low antioxidant capacity, which leads to a reduction in sperm fertilising ability, especially in the case of short-lasting or frozen semen. Through research the clinic will especially focus on TNF as a potential prognostic indicator of oxidative stress and oxidative stress parameters, as well as MMP involved in the processes of tissue remodeling, cell migration and intercellular interactions in the process of fertilisation. The results of this research will enable the development of new biotechnological processes for more effective preservation of semen. These will also be used in the formation of a gene pool of stem cells and embryos, which will allow the preservation of genetic material from indigenous breeds of domestic animals and the conservation of biological diversity.




    • Projekt v okviru znanstveno-raziskovalnega sodelovanja med Avstrijo, Slovenijo, Bolgarijo in državami jugovzhodne Evrope: Balkan Network of Biotechnology in Animal Reproduction for the protection and restoration of animal genetic resources in the region (Janko Mrkun, Petra Zrimšek, Maja Zakošek); trajanje: 2008 – 2009

    This project supports and strengthens the objectives of the Balkan research centres dealing with reproductive biotechnology (artificial insemination, MOET , splitting, sexing, freezing of sex cells and embryos), which has practical importance in preserving, restoring and maintaining animal sources in the Balkans. The main purpose of the project is based on bilateral collaboration to establish a network between the Balkan countries in the field of reproductive technologies in order to preserve and maintain the reproduction of healthy animals. The network comprises 12 institutions from 7 Balkan countries and Austria: Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, Macedonia, Serbia, Slovenia and Croatia.


    • COST project (FA0702): Interaction between mother and stem cells and embryos (Primož Klinc); Duration: 2008 – 2012

     The COST FA0702 programme entitled “Interactions between mother and stem cells and embryos” began in 2008. The main purpose of this programme is to establish a network of European researchers who study the interaction between mother and stem cells and embryos in different areas and in different animal species. With a concerted action plan the intention is to achieve progress in establishing these. Interactome interactions between cells as well as endo- and paracrine interactions between stem cells, embryos and the female genital tract in various stages of the sexual cycle and during pregnancy in healthy animals and in animals with impaired metabolism and malnourishment


    • Bilateral Slovenian – Macedonian project: Study indicators of oxidative stress for predicting the fertilising ability of frozen porcine semen (Head in Slovenia: Petra Zrimšek, Head in Macedonia: Toni Dovenski); applied for years: 2010-21

    The main purpose of the project is to identify indicators of oxidative stress in porcine semen, with which it is possible to establish their importance in predicting the fertilising ability of the semen. Markers of oxidative stress in semen plasma (such as the total antioxidant capacity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde as a marker of lipid peroxidation), will be diagnostically and prognostically evaluated, in order to try to predict the fertilising ability of frozen semen. The results of this research will enable the development of new biotechnological processes for the successful preservation of semen. During the project practical experiences will be exchanged and knowledge transferred between the two groups of researchers; the mobility of researchers will be enabled and their career will progress.

  • Professional Work

    The clinic conducts assisted reproduction in cattle, horses, pigs, sheep and goats, dogs and other animals. It performs gynecological examinations, treatment, pregnancy diagnosis, artificial insemination and genital surgeries using ultrasound and endoscopic methods. Andrological checks are performed on all males (bulls, stallions, boars and rams) prior to inclusion in the programme of reproduction. In the event of fertility disorders in herds and in breeding males, the clinic investigates the cause and prepares rehabilitation programmes. Sampling for microbiological testing of studs and females is performed. The laboratory conducts computer analysis of semen preservation and maintenance of gene banks. In fieldwork a mobile laboratory with equipment is used that enables the transfer of embryos. The transfer of embryos – embryo transfer in cattle is carried out at the property of the donor, where embryos may be transferred immediately to recipients or frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen.

    For non-veterinary workers the clinic carries out training for inseminators who inseminate their own animals and holders of breeding stations. In accordance with acts and bylaws, the clinic manages registers and a database with information about artificial insemination in Slovenia.


    At the clinic the following activities are performed for the treatment and care of the health of equines:

    • preventive health care of equines – prevention of infections caused by parasites, teeth correction, preventive vaccinations
    • diagnostics (ultrasound, endoscopic, X-ray, laboratory) and treatment of diseases of the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, uric-sexual apparatus and skin (electrochemotherapy)
    • diagnostics (ultrasound, X-ray), treatment and surgery of orthopedic and neurological disorders
    • diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases
    • diagnostics, conservative and surgical treatment of colic and post-operative care and care of horses
    • surgical treatment of certain conditions and diseases (cryptorchid castration, corrections of umbilical hernias, arthroscopy, osteosynthesis, removing fragments, …)
    • diagnosis and treatment of conditions and diseases of neonatal foals